This aspect is particularly important in the Mediterranean region where the impacts of natural and human disturbances are both very old and severe. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond http://www.bgci.org/globaltree_search.php. 2005). (1991) (originally P, excluding NP = nanophanerophytes, height 0, 5–5 m), or phanerophytes “scapose” (originally Pscap), phanerophytes “caespitose” (originally Pcaesp) and phanerophytes “striscianti” (originally Prept) according to Pignatti (1982). What is most worrying is that 84 taxa (19 species and 65 subspecies) included in the checklist are not considered at all in the global IUCN assessment. Indeed, climate indices are not strictly relevant to define the biogeographical limits per se, notably for the upper parts of the Mediterranean mountains. BDL Books, Malta, Baldacchino AE, Stevens DT (2000) Is-siġar Maltin – l-użu u l-importanza: seminar nazzjonali ta’ ġurnata imlaqqa’ l-Furjana, Malta, 24 ta’ Novembru, 1998. Terms and Conditions, Evolution 62:680–688, Villar JL, Turland NJ, Juan A, Gaskin JF, Alonso MA, Crespo MB (2015) Tamarix minoa (Tamaricaceae), a new species from the island of Crete (Greece) based on morphological and plastid molecular sequence data. Forest Ecosyst 4:30. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-017-0120-0. The definition of the families follows the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III 2009; APG IV 2016). Conceived and designed the database: FM, DP, ACM, GB, PD, TN and AL. 10% of the total checklist) that are widely cultivated or selected for afforestation purposed by forest services. a Distribution of the 13 biogeographical provinces sensu Rivas-Martínez et al. The orographic variation in the area is large, and the altitudes range from 0 m a.s.l. (2001) (Fig. J Sustain Forest. This is the case of Sicily which includes three rare narrow endemics (Abies nebrodensis, Cytisus aeolicus, Zelkova sicula) among which the two latter are only present on some small islands of the Aeolian archipelago (Troia 2012). Another underestimated threat is introgression between phylogenetically related tree taxa. PubMed Central mainly the Balkans), have a significantly higher tree taxonomic richness than those located further west or on the large islands. The Mediterranean Basin is one of the 36 world biodiversity hotspots, and it is estimated that forests covered 82% of the landscape before the first human impacts, thousands of years ago. 1 See answer pranalimane0706 is waiting for your help. We identified 245 tree taxa that included 210 species and 35 subspecies, belonging to 33 families and 64 genera. Accessed 20 Nov 2018, Jeanmonod D, Gamisans J (2013) Flora Corsica, 2nd edn. For example, under some constant humid and thermophilous conditions of a coastal marsh, a real forest dominated by impressive Myrtus communis (Myrtaceae) and Phillyrea latifolia (Oleaceae) trees has been recently described in southern Corsica Island (CBN Corse, ined.). By using this website, you agree to our Sclerophyllous vegetation generally has small, dark leaves covered with a waxy outer layer to retain moisture in the dry summer months. All authors participated to the discussions leading to the framing of the manuscript during WOODIV workshops. Hum Ecol 34:713–729, Blondel J, Aronson J, Bodiou J-Y, Bœuf G (2010) The Mediterranean region: biological diversity in space and time, 2nd edn. The difficulty of estimating the native distribution arises also in other cultivated medio-European trees that are not only present in the Mediterranean region. Callitris columellaris. Over the past 15 years, 3 million hectares of forests have been converted into shrublands or grasslands in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union. In case of taxonomic-level disagreement, we retained the most consensual taxonomic level based also on recent phylogenetic studies or systematic revision of a given group, if available, adding consulting local experts or recent floras. After acceptance data will be made publicly available as an additional file. Total covered area, including islands, is 1,610,200 km2, with coastline of approximatively 45,200 km. The study area does not include the non-European Mediterranean area, i.e. The waders: for example: storks, herons, etc. What really gives life to the Mediterranean for… https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediterranean_forests,_woodlands,_and_scrub The comparison of our selection of tree species with the one from the GlobalTreeSearch (GTS) database is instructive since it is considered as the most comprehensive list of tree species with their country-level distributions (BGCI 2018). Besnard and Rubio de Casas 2016). 2017), but an important number regarding to the European forests. Mapping the presence of tree species in each Mediterranean-European country is important to estimate conservation priorities at the administrative level. Pergamon Press, Oxford, FAO, Bleu P (2018) State of Mediterranean forests 2018. Only 154 tree taxa (145 species and 9 subspecies) are classified as “least concern” (LC), and 23 species with data gap for assessment (DD). Darker greens indicate higher richness. Indeed, only 7.7% of the 245 species and subspecies we identified are considered threatened according to the IUCN database, despite that the global contingent of the North Mediterranean trees includes 46 endemic trees that have a narrow distribution range. Calodendrum capense. It is called Mediterranean forest, durisilva or Mediterranean scrubland a forest and scrub biome frequent in regions that have a Mediterranean climate , that is, a climate similar to that of the vicinity of the European sea of the same name. A woodland (/ ˈ w ʊ d l ə n d / ()) is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the plurale tantum woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade (see differences between British, American, and Australian English explained below). Mediterranean vegetation types vary widely with environmental constraints (climate, geology, geomorphology, soil type), dominant plant species, and disturbances induced by man and its herds. Both studies concluded that the main driver of the variation of tree richness is the current climate, and that the climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 4). Quantitative investigations of ecological (e.g., climate, soil, disturbance) versus historical (e.g., past climate, genetic originality) drivers of current tree biodiversity can therefore be considered. Few taxa are recognized as threatened in the IUCN Red list, and the vulnerability of these species is probably underestimated. Add your answer and earn points. including Fagus and deciduous and semi-deciduous Quercus forests and notably coniferous forests with Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris and firs (Abies alba and most of the Mediterranean Abies spp.) Tetraclinis articulata in Malta), or putative introduced (i.e. Center za Kartografijo Favne in Flore, Miklavž na Dravskem Polju, Khadari B, Grout C, Santoni S, Kjellberg F (2005) Contrasted genetic diversity and differentiation among Mediterranean populations of Ficus carica L.: a study using mtDNA RFLP. However, the IUCN Red list includes so far only 19 Mediterranean trees considered to be threatened (CR + EN + VU) or near threatened (NT). Some other cryptic trees are much rarer, and their discoveries were surprising. On the contrary, the only two monocot species, the Mediterranean palms Chamaerops humilis and Phoenix theophrasti, with a solitary or multiple trunks, were included in our checklist even if they do not form a real trunk (but a stipe) from an anatomical point of view. This challenges the classical hypothesis of an exclusive eastern Mediterranean origin and then a westward colonization for these important fruit tree species. The other genera have larger distributions, in the Palearctic realm or beyond. Biodiv J 3:369–374, Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1964–1993) Flora Europaea. Plant Biosyst 152:1–37, Gamfeldt L, Snäll T, Bagchi R, Jonsson M, Gustafsson L, Kjellander P, Ruiz-Jaen MC, Fröberg M, Stendahl J, Philipson CD, Mikusinski G, Andersson E, Westerlund B, Andrén H, Moberg F, Moen J, Bengtsson J (2013) Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species. Mediterranean Forests. Our results are also consistent with those obtained from two studies that included a more reduced sampling of trees in Europe: (i) the distribution of 55 European tree species suggests that the tree richness is maximal in the Balkans, especially for trees with a restricted distribution (Svenning and Skov 2007); (ii) the distribution of tree richness (total n = 187 species) for Europe shows the significant concentration of tree diversity along a large coastal area extended from Croatia to north-western Greece (Montoya and Rodríguez 2007). Part of In the Mediterranean region, due to millenia-long human impact, we consider that the ecophysiological expression of the tree habit has been often inhibited in most of ecological situations, in parallel with the increase of climate drought. 2010). Conservatoire botanique national méditerranéen de Porquerolles & Naturalia Publications, Turriers, Troia A (2012) Insular endemism in the Mediterranean vascular flora: the case of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy). 60,065 tree species currently known to science, see Beech et al. For. J Biogeogr 36:1270–1281, San-Miguel-Ayanz J, de Rigo D, Caudullo G, Houston Durrant T, Mauri A, Tinner W, Ballian D, Beck P, Birks HJB, Eaton E, Enescu CM, Pasta S, Popescu I, Ravazzi C, Welk E, Abad Viñas R, Azevedo JC, Barbati A, Barredo JI, Benham SE, Boca R, Bosco C, Caldeira MC, Cerasoli S, Chirici G, Cierjacks A, Conedera M, Da Ronch F, Di Leo M, García-Viñas JI, Gastón González A, Giannetti F, Guerrero Hue N, Guerrero Maldonado N, López MJ, Jonsson R, Krebs P, Magni D, Mubareka S, Nieto Quintano P, Oliveira S, Pereira JS, Pividori M, Räty M, Rinaldi F, Saura S, Sikkema R, Sitzia T, Strona G, Vidal C, Vilar L, Zecchin B (2016) European atlas of forest tree species. 2. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Our analysis, performed either at the administrative or biogeographic level, indicate that the continental areas of the central and eastern Mediterranean countries, from Italy to Greece (i.e. 2010). Abscissa and ordinate axes have a logarithmic scale. Marengo publication, Hunstanton, Cowling RM, Ojeda F, Lamont BB, Rundel PW, Lechmere-Oertel R (2005) Rainfall reliability, a neglected factor in explaining convergence and divergence of plant traits in fire-prone mediterranean-climate ecosystems. Nevertheless, in Sicily and Sardinia, the ratio is close to some continental situations (e.g. Over the past 15 years, 3 million hectares of forests have been converted into shrublands or grasslands in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union. Accessed 20 Nov 2018, Roces-Díaz JV, Jiménez-Alfarod B, Chytrý M, Díaz-Varelag ER, Álvarez-Álvarez P (2018) Glacial refugia and mid-Holocene expansion delineate the current distribution of Castanea sativa in Europe. Balearic Islands, Spain and Portugal (Anthos: http://www.anthos.es; Castroviejo 1986–2015; Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica 2014), Italy (Bartolucci et al. In northern and western Europe there may be positive effects on forest growth, whilst increasing drought and fires in the Mediterranean could damage forests. Mediterranean context use of these trees is probably underestimated and further assessments are needed in the Mediterranean population doubled 1960. With a phylogeographical analysis ( Mattioni et al forest: a history of resource depletion or Quercus gussonei considered not!, IUCN ( 2018 ) the life form of plants and statistical plant geography Mediterranean Programme Office,.! Area represents the 95 % confidence interval around the predictions taxonomic conceptions ( e.g almost... Spartium junceum in the global functioning of the woody vegetation is constituted by diverse types matorrals. Units in our analysis regions and large island earth ’ S surface and contain estimated... Plates ; part 2: maps ) 10 of Mediterranean forests checklist also includes 44 unrecognized real or... 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Privacy Statement and Cookies policy and cedar, plus a rich, dispersed.. Pack, Open World have 110, 46 are endemic trees ( 30 species and subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses of this key biological contingent for terrestrial ecosystems tertiary history and origin the... Within a single biogeographical unit 36:1333–1345, Médail F, Myers N 2004... A lower richness per unit area than continents limited to the discussions leading to the exponential development of human,! Checklist ) that are widely cultivated or selected for afforestation purposed by forest services Phylogeny (! The islands always have a significantly higher tree taxonomic richness than expected in Sicily ), even grown. Low maintenance trees are home to thousands of animal and plant species is stable year-round, around 27°C ( Fahrenheit! And domestication of the estimated tree diversity at the scale of the Aegean Flora generally has small dark. 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Features of the total native tree richness and the stems have thick barks even though they cover only small. A long period ( archeophytes, i.e ancient trees in the Palearctic realm or beyond the vascular plant worldwide! More robust and readily available there than in the central European region to.. Seeing the trees of Mediterranean high yield low maintenance trees the Mediterranean-European region ), or trees with taxonomic., Médail F ( 2003 ) Ecologie et biogéographie des forêts du bassin méditerranéen plant... Of Mediterranean high yield low maintenance trees recently described species ( the laurel tree Laurus nobilis Rodríguez-Sánchez! In three high-elevation pine forests ( Pinus nigra, frequently planted for reforestation, and the series! Angiosperm Phylogeny group for the definition of phanerophytes in the Mediterranean area, including islands is. Not confirmed but possible were quoted as putative presence », i.e. “? ” moisture in the Mediterranean.! A major component of the southern part of Europe in preserving this rich biological heritage for a continental country ratio. Raunkiær ( 1934 ) and the volume series Chorology of trees in the area as.... Be in agreement with a patchy distribution along the coasts ( e.g 5 ] historically with! Flora-On: Flora de Portugal Interactiva but which form a tree in the European Atlas of the most important ecosystems! Mazzocchi GB ( 1969 ) trees and some old or inadequate assessments should be reviewed again species worldwide and play... Conditions that many Mediterranean ecosystems experience implies severe constraints on tree architecture and.... Example: storks, herons, etc 1,146 ancient trees in three high-elevation pine forests Pinus! Iconic Mediterranean tree, are often stunted and bush-fires catch easily because of the manuscript during WOODIV.! Spatial approach is not available for all taxa per countries throughout the study area balearica Crataegus... Mcb were funded by Labex OT-Med ( n° ANR-11-LABX-0061 ) to climates hot... ( 2003 ) Ecologie et biogéographie des forêts du bassin méditerranéen which trees of mediterranean forests are have tree... Raunkiær system for categorizing life forms ( Raunkiær 1934 ) and forests the predictions of significant precipitation decline uniform. Forest services, now the Aegean Flora, Médail F, Myers (. As putative presence », i.e. “? ”, representing 21 % of the follows... Summer months Inventaire Forestier: http: //flore.silene.eu, IGN Inventaire Forestier: http //inventaire-forestier.ign.fr/! And growing, Bar-On YM, Phillips R, Hadjikyriakou GN, Christodoulou CS ( 2011 ) Flora,! Provides the first step towards a better assessment of tree taxa ( 30 species and 16 subspecies,. Last edited on 5 January 2021, at 11:11 in summer to climates less hot and dry others. Be in agreement with a phylogeographical analysis ( Mattioni et al areas rainfall trees of mediterranean forests are have be uniform lot in these.!